Monday, July 11, 2011

The Sugar Revolution
  • Why Africans? Why Sugar? Why the Caribbean?
    • Labor sources: indigenous, indentured white, African slave; sugar has a high economic value; Initially the Caribbean loses out to Brazil
external image 350px-Spread_sugarcane.JPG

  • The Sugar Revolution in Brazil
    • they don't have a silver boom and they have lots of free land; Portuguese need a staple crop---> sugar is is
    • slow development of sugar industry in Brazil; quasi-feudal structures (each group leaves Europe with a certain political/economic encoded DNA to the New World); land grants to elites; under capitalized--> inefficient technology
    • High ttransport costs; technological bottlenecks-- mills were inefficient--> ; heavily taxed by gov't; high price of slaves in 16th c.
  • Slavery in African Life
    • Africa is very diverse
    • Slavery is long known in Africa--connected to the scarcity of labor...not land
    • Aspects of pre-16th c. slave trade; slaver is a product of warfare and state formation
external image slave_trade_1650-1860_b%20-%20www.slaveryinamerica.org.jpg
  • Sugar Comes to the West Indies
    • No production in 1640; by 1660 produces 65% of sugar consumed by British
    • Accompanied by major demographic changes (native pops exposed to European diseases)
    • Ecology source is transformed (trees cleared to fuel boilers)of total British trade
    • Emergence in Jamaica and St-Domingue as new centers of sugar rev in 18th c
    • Major metropolitan sugar interests emerge in Britain and France
    • Between 1713-1822, BWI exports 25% of TOTAL BRITISH TRADE!
  • The Sugar Plantation
    • Sugar production is an agro-industrial endeavor
external image slavery-1823.jpg
What does this image tell us?
no gender-based division of labor; not all slave-labor positions were equal
Songs about sugar:
http://sugarchangedtheworld.com/the-music-and-dance-of-sugar-work/
external image holing-out-cane.jpg


external image slavery.gif
SUGAR: An Agro-Industrial Crop
heavily capitalized; major expansion in scale of production; significant technological changes; abolishes amount of time

OTHER INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS: Silver, Sugar, Porcelain and Silk

DISCUSSION ON READINGS
Mintz: Chapter 2




IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, & Power by Daniel Yergin
  2. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades by Patrick Manning
  3. Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713 by Richard S. Dunn
  4. The Atlantic Slave Trade ed. David Northrup
  5. 6 ICAANE By Paolo Matthiae, Licia Roman
  6. Islamic Agricultural Revolution by Andrew Watson
  7. Seeds of Change: Readings on Cultural Exchange after 1492
  8. Struggle and Survival in the Colonial America by David Sweet and Gary B. Nash
  9. Sugar Changes the World: A Story of Magic, Spice, Slavery, Freedom, and Science by Marc Aronson and Marina Budhos
  10. The Christian Century in Japan by C.R. Boxer
  11. The Founding of New Societies: Studies in the Hisotry of the US, Latin America, South Africa, Canada, and Australia by Lousi Hartz
  12. The Colonial Heritage of Latin America: Essays on Economic Dependence in Perspective by Stanlye J. Stein and Barbar H. Stein
  13. The Many Middle Passages: Forced Migration and the Making of the Modern World ed. by Emma Christopher, Cassandra Pybus, and Marcus Rediker
  14. The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in African, the Americas, and Europe by Joseph E. Inikori and Stanley L. Engerman editors
  15. Caribbean Slave Society and Economy ed. by Dr. Hilary Beckles adn Verene Shepherd
  16. Slavery and South Asian History ed. by Indrani Chatterjee and Richard M. Eaton
  17. Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System ed by Barbara L. Solow
  18. Maroon societies: rebel slave communities in the Americas By Richard Price

TUESDAY LUNCH: TUESDAY, JUNE 12, 2011

Elaine, Digital Arts Research Center

  • background in architecture
  • how do particular landscapes develop
  • relationship between ecology and economy
  • how do we look at memories, inheritance, time
  • Research on rice; Mekong Delta--feeds half of the worlds population
  • International Rice Research Institute
  • Rice terraces are becoming a tourist site; UNESCO world heritage sites

external image ifugao-rice-terrace2.jpg

TUESDAY, JUNE 12, 2011

Thornton: Chapter 4- Whitney

  • Did racism create slavery or did slavery create racism?
  • Las Casas/Sepulveda debate (do Indians have souls?)

SUGAR CONSUMPTION AND THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY- Burke
  • The Abolition of Slavery
    • Atlantic context of movement to abolish slaver
    • Centrality of slave resistance
    • Assembling of the anti-slavery coalition around the Atlantic
      • Role of the press gang in sensitizing urbanites (forced labor on ships by Euros--> taken on ships and forced to work)
      • sailors and "liberty" quakers
      • Black freemen
      • John Newton, Composer of Amazing Grace
      • Thomas Clarkson-a leading pamphleteer
      • Olaudah Equiano-Black freedman; Gustavas Vassa; probably African born, "Sons of Africa"
      • William Wilberforce--chief Parliamentary advocate (movie: Amazing Grace)- introduces first bill in 1791; author of Slavery Abolition Act eventually passed in 1832 (slave trade abolished in 1807)
      • Josiah Wedgewood, wealthy porcelain manufacturer; Quaker activist; plays important role in publicizing abolitionist movement
Slavery.jpg
    • Largest and longest lasting political movement in history
  • Sugar in World History
    • Making the Sugar Market
      • Until 1750: item of elites
      • 1750-1850: still a relative luxury, though consumed by bourgeois classes
      • 1850-1914: sugar becomes an item of mass consumption
      • Special interests and the sugar market
        • The Royal Navy and the "rum ration" (1 pint/person/day)
        • Royal Navy also allocated 34 pounds of sugar/person/year
        • Official allotments of sugar and treacle in govt poor houses (23 lbs/person/year)
      • British market develops slowly at first due to customs duties on imports (duties abolished 1830-1850s following the abolition of sugar
      • Sharp increase of consumption follows
external image 1966_sugar_ad.jpg
  • The Revolution on the Consumption of Sugar
  • Post Slavery Histories of Sugar
    • Haitian Rev- end of slavery
    • Slave Trade abolished in 1807
    • Slavery abolished in Britain 1832
    • Slavery abolished in US- 1864; Cuba- 1888, Brazil-1888
QUESTION: What is the impact of the end of the slave trade on Africa?

external image USASships.jpg

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IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. The Slave Ship by Marcus Rediker
  2. The Atlas of Slavery by James Walvin
  3. The Slave Voyages Website (scavenger hunt): Slave Ship Zong
  4. Africanisms in American Culture by Joseph E. Holloway
  5. Middle Passage: Roots Episode 1
  6. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America Ronald Takaki
  7. Desert frontier: ecological and economic change along the Western Sahel 1600-1850 By James L. A. Webb
  8. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution by Larent Dubois
  9. Plumes: Ostrich Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of Global Commerce by Sarah Abrevaya Stein
  10. Forces of Habit: Drugs and the Making of the Modern World by David Courtwright
  11. The London hanged: crime and civil society in the eighteenth century By Peter Linebaugh
  12. Cotton by Beverly Lemire
  13. Towards a history of consumption in South Asia ed by Douglas E. Haynes, Abigail McGowan, Tirthankar Roy, and Haruka Yanagisawa
  14. The Americas in the Age of Revolution 1750-1850 by Lester D. Langley
  15. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776-1848 by Robin Blackburn
  16. The Making of New World Slaver from the Baroque to the Modern 1492-1800 by Robin Blackburn

WEDNESDAY, JULY 13, 2011
Steven Topik, Guest Lecturer
sctopik@uci.edu

A Stimulating Way to Study the World
  • Why has there been a big push in commodities history in the past decade?
    • Attempts to answer the issue of globalization
    • Often challenge key beliefs of Neoliberal religion
    • CAPITALIST COMMANDMENTS
      • Commodification: homo economicus (profit is important; mentality of acquisition)- reference Appaduari
      • Things are only valuable as commodites
      • Marx's and Leah Cohen's Commodity Fetishism
      • Markets rule the world: we are mainly shoppers or sellers
      • Eurocentrism- all important innovations move from the western European tradition/ rest of the world contributes, but is masterminded from Europe; Orientalism
      • Construct of Eurocentrist views: Tropicalia
        • North: industrious; hardworking; civilized; urbane
        • South: fertile; plenty resources; relatively unhabited; racially inferior; savage; untamed; indolentt; sexualized; violent; hot-blooded (climatic determinism)
      • The World as a Steam Roller- everything will b
        • The World Is Flat (Freidman)
      • Only humans make history (Anthropocentrism)
      • Other Goals: to make the familiar strange and the exotic familiar
external image cant-lose-weight-the-world-is-flat.jpg
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external image world_sm02.gif

HOW DO WE DO THIS?
  • Study Stimulants (how different from other things?)
  • We INCORPORATE the other and they transform us
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Momentous changes in GLOBALIZATION
  • Age of EXPLORATION & ENCOUNTER
  • Overseas European Empire
  • Birth of Capitalism
  • Beginnings of modernity--> Very Eurocentric notion--> stimulants play a significant role during this time
    • Age of Reason/Enlightenment
    • Scientific Rev
    • Rise of Bourgeoisie and Liberalism
    • Secularism
STIMULANTS' CONTRIBUTIONS
  • The "Industrious Revolution" Jan de Vries
  • Intensified Labor
  • New Time Discipline
  • Commodification of Land, Labor, and the Products of Labor
  • BUT NOTE EGALITARIAN- wider gulf between groups
    • development vs. underdevelopment
external image Janus-dimon.jpg
Janus: same thing can have different aspects depending on what direction you look--> DUALITY & CONTRADICTION

**The Blind Man and the Elephant** (or is it more complicated--> the importance of relativity)
external image blindmen-elephant.gif
external image elephant.JPG

external image blind-men-and-the-elephant-gif.gif?1304537409

COFFEE- WHAT IS IT?
  • energy drink for athletes & warriors
  • used for divination
  • used for religious ritual and sacrament
  • creative inspiration for the arts (writers, philosophers)
  • coffee house- site for civil sociability
  • ceremony for social distinction (service pieces-silver, porcelain, sugar)
  • Bourgeoisie public space for intellectual activity
  • Revolutionary drink/crop- inspired revolts in Haiti & Paris
  • Sign of domestic aptitude and sociability (brewing a good cup of coffee)
  • sign of national identity: Italian, Viennese, French Roast, "cup of Joe", Vietnamese coffee, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba
  • Break from labor-leisure
  • Fuel for labor
  • Generational definition (of the older crowd)
  • Fashion statement
  • Sign of modernity and HIP-ness
  • Commodity
  • Battlefield in struggle between "free trade" and "fair trade"; contest between efficiency and justice

WHY DO AMERICANS DRINK COFFEE?
  • When did coffee drinking begin?
    • John Smith? was in a Turkish jail; but no evidence that he brought coffee to America
    • Dutch in NEw AMsterdam? Mr. Wuffbain
    • William Penn complained about 1683 tax
    • London Coffee House in Philly- places of trade/inns/slave auction
      • Became places of political meetings and economic functions: inns, restaurants, invoked names to show English prestige; Lloyds of London- started as a coffee house;
        • Others changed names as an anti-British protest
    • Coffee has a low price, but still very low consumption; only 1/8 lb per capita consumption by 1783
    • Story of Coffee in America---> coffee becomes a revolutionary drink
      • William Ukers-
      • Gregory Dicum and Nina Luttinger, The Coffee Book
        • European colonialism seemed to dictate where coffee was cultivated and drunk, but the in caseof the US, it was the end of colonialism, dramatically reflected in the Boston Tea Party that marks its rise to prominence
      • Republican Motherhood: Abigail Adams
        • No import/reduction of imports movement--> No Tee
      • Coffee a part of the American identity
        • Freedom drink
        • George Washington
        • Names on coffee appeal to American icons
external image CuppaJoe1.jpg
external image image91.jpg

  • Coffee is assoc with westward expansion
    • Cowboys with their coffee
    • Arrives in San Francisco- Folgers and Hills Brothers (coffee coming from Mocha and Java)
external image hills_bros_coffee_can.jpg

NOT QUITE LIKE THAT
  • Didn't abandon tea-amt consumed continued to grow- 29 million pounds 1859 to 47 million pounds in 1881 from China and then India
  • Americans drinking more tea by 1900 (but coffee needed more grounds than tea)
  • Tea becomes feminized
  • Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company--> started as a Tea Company and became chain stores
external image A%26P+ad.jpg
REASONS FOR CHANGE MORE BECAUSE OF COMMERCE THAN NATIONALIST IDEOLOGY

  • Because of Rev War, US ships excluded from trade with British colonies (biggest trade partner is St. Domingue)
  • "freedom" meant free trade
  • Didn't mean only buying goods produced only by free people
  • Haitain Revolution- 1791-1804- defeat the French as well as the British and Spanish
  • Brazil fills void when Haiti revolts; US won't trade with them after revolution (debunks the sense that coffee is a "freedom" beverage); in 1906- Brazil is producing 90% of the world's coffee; (leaf rust attacks the coffee plantations in Ceylon and Java which damages their production ability during this time)
external image Rugendas%2BSlave%2BMarket%2BBrazil%2Bunknown%2Bartist.jpg
Slave Market in Brazil

Statistics on coffee exports/imports: Edmar Bacha and Robert Greenhill, 150 Anos de Cafe (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) and Ukers All About Coffee

Coffee branding does not show that the coffee is being born in Brazil with a slave economy

1900s influx of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe who were coffee drinkers
external image arbuckle_label.png

Coffee Commodity Chain
external image Arbuckles_AdCard_large.jpg

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MODERN ISSUES IN COFFEE
  • Growers assert themselves
    • Brazil Valorizations start in 1906: start holding coffee off of the market to try to raise the process
    • Sao Paola, then the Federal Coffee Institutes (government intervention)
    • Colombiia 1927 FNCC
    • Inter-American Coffee Agreement in 1940
      • worried about siding with the Nazi
    • International Coffee Organization 1963
      • Cold War issue
    • Juan Valdez-born in 1960
      • FNCC- sell cofee and sell Colombia
      • Arturo Arango Uribe: character that personifies Colombia
TRANSFORMATIONS & TENSIONS
  • growth of state institutes in growing countries
  • Consolidation of enormous capitalist roasters in US and Europe
  • Spread of cultivation to Africa and Asia
  • End of Cold War spelled end of state companies--1989-rise of Neoliberalism
  • Other reponses to neoliberalism--> Fair Trade

external image world-fair-trade-day-logo.jpg

Specialty coffee
Role of dependency theory
The Tea Party

IDEAS & RESOURCES- Books Suggested by Steven Topik
  1. The Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things by Charles Panati
  2. Bury the Chains by Adam Hoschilde
  3. Coffee in Colombia 1850-1970 by Marcos Palacios

THURSDAY, JULY 14, 2011
David H. Anthony III, Professor of History at UCSC
danthony@ucsc.edu
Globalizing Black History

His Journey
Grew up in 1960s New York; exposed to many cultures
African Cinema:

Ghana garment: Adinkra symbols
Adinkra Cloth PBS

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. Jali Kundraby Foday Musa Suso, Philip Glass, Pharoah Sanders
  2. Harold Scheub
  3. H. Scheub website


THURSDAY, JULY 14, 2011 (CLASS TIME)
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HAITIAN REVOLUTION
external image 800px-colonial_haiti_outline_map.gif

external image 175px-Triangle_trade2.png
  • SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ST. DOMINGUE- main product of Haiti
  • HAITI: THE REVOLUTION FROM BELOW
  • IMPACT OF THE HAITIAN REV ON THE ATLANTIC WORLD
  • THE AFTERMATH OF THE REVOLUTION IN THE ATLANTIC WORLD
    • French seek other avenues for sugar (Beet sugar)
external image 3806f.jpg
external image ColonialPossessionsOfWorldP.gif

DISCUSSION: THORNTON & CURTIN








IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. Ecological imperialism: the biological expansion of Europe, 900-1900 By Alfred W. Crosby
  2. The Problem o Freedom: Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938 by Thomas C. Holt
  3. A Perfect Red: Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire By Amy Butler Greenfield
  4. Exchanging Out Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South by Michaeil A. Gomez
  5. A Tabloid History of the World by Kevin McDonough
  6. Through the Prism of Slavery: Labor, Capital, and World Economy by Dale W. Tomich
  7. Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy by Eric Foner
  8. From Rebellion to Revolution" Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the New World by Eugene D. Genovese
  9. The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France ed. by Sue Peabody and Tyler Stovall
  10. Middle East Report Journal
  11. Calliope World History Magazine for Ages 9-14
  12. The camel and the wheel By Richard W. Bulliet
  13. The making of Haïti: the Saint Domingue revolution from below By Carolyn E. Fick
  14. All Souls' Rising By Madison Smartt Bell (historical fiction about Hatian Revolution)

MONDAY, JULY 18, 2011

COTTON TEXTILES AND THE MAKING OF A WORLD MARKET
  • Textiles in World History
    • 3 industrial moments:
      • Pre-Asian dominance (Silk in China/Weavers in Inda)
      • The textile rev (machine production
      • The Empire of Free Trade (industrial mills + slave production)
cotton.jpg
HISTORICAL MAP RESOURCE: http://etc.usf.edu/maps/index.htm
ARTICLE ON EGYPTIAN COTTON
  • First Empire of Cotton: India
    • Dynamism of South Asian textile production: main centers--> Gujurat, Coromandal Coast, Bengal, Punjab and the Sind
    • SUCCESSFUL BECAUSE OF: high productivity, competitive prices, effective out-sourcing o phases of prod, widely dispersed merchant networks
  • The Textile Revolution in Britain
    • British Imperialism and the De-industrialization of India
      • Suppression of cotton imports to Britain
      • Suppression of cotton production
      • The defeat of the French (1799) and the fate of India
      • Dumping of cheap British spun thread in India
      • British East India Co establishes presence in 1600 but there is not British political presence until later.
    • New Inventions
      • Spinning Jenny 1764, water frame 1789, spinning mule 1779
      • The factory
      • Great Increase in productions
      • MOVIES ABOUT INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: North and South and Cranford
      • New Lanark
      • Amoskeag Print Works
external image Print_Works,_Amoskeag_Manufacturing_Company.jpg
Print Works, Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, Manchester NH; from a c. 1906 postcard.
  • Cottonopolis: Manchester
external image 330px-Cottonopolis1.jpg
Engraving by Edward Goodall (1795-1870), original title Manchester, from Kersal Moor after a painting of W. Wyld
    • Cotton prod expands 6-7% /year sicne 1815 (50% of all British exports from cotton products; net output increased 40% wages increased 5%; Contributes largest share to British capital by far; an autocatalytic process--> unstoppable
external image Loutherbourg_Coalbrookdale_by_Night_1801.jpg

Philip de Loutherbourg Coalbrookdale by Night 1801

  • The Slave System & the Industrial Revolution
    • Through the international division of labor, links slaves in plantations, mill owners, and consumers of cotton goods worldwide
    • Importance of cotton gin in elevating America in cotton production--> 1793- 360 bales to 5 million bales 1860--> KING COTTON
external image 135056-003-90DC4EED.gif
  • The American Civil War as a World Event
    • American Civil War leads to consolidation of US nation-state; slave emancipation; embrace of new political economy by Northern elites; spread of capitalist relations into the Southern countryside
    • Search for new cotton supplies: wartime rehearsals for Reconstruction: 3 options--> India, Egypt, Brazil; problem---more expensive than Southern US cotton sources
  • Cotton and Empire
    • Re-engineering labor systems required after the abolition of slavery
    • New mode of productions: sharecropping
    • GLOBALIZING THE CIVIL WAR: What effect did the end of slavery have on the global economy?
    • The Case of Berar
      • Prior to 1860: isolated state in Central India; subsistence agriculture; cotton one of many crops; mixed labor systems
      • After 1860: linked to RR grid by world market; increasingly mono-crop cotton producer; great increase in landless laborers (30-40%); cotton textile workers made unemployed by cheap British cotton imports
      • Quote from Sen. James Henry Hammond:"No, sir, you dare not snake war on cotton. No power on earth dares make war upon it. Cotton is king. Until lately the Bank of England was king; but she tried to put her screws as usual, the fall before last, upon the cotton crop, and was utterly vanquished. The last power has been conquered."
      • Emancipation and Imperialism marched hand in hand
  • Late Victorian Holocausts
    • Three subsistence crises (1876-79, 1889-91, 1896-1902)
    • El nino-boosted famines
    • In conjunction with the new political economy, result is devastating across the world (el nino, changes is world economy---> big disasters)
    • Birth of the 3rd world: What changes from 1700 to 1900s

IDEAS AND RESOURCES
  1. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton By Andrew H. Paterson
  2. Khadi cloth
  3. Boycott- teaching the role of boycott in history; India's protest of British goods.
  4. Widow Spinner (are we sure we are hearing the woman's voice or did someone else write it; if it is...what's the purpose of it;
  5. Domesticating the world: African consumerism and the genealogies of Globalization By Jeremy Prestholdt
  6. The Invention of Tradition by Eric J. Hobsbawm and Terence O. Ranger
  7. MOVIES ABOUT INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: North and South and Cranford
  8. Industry and Empire from 1750 to the present day by Hobsbawn
  9. Sea of Poppies by Amitav Ghosh
  10. Mike Davis Books
    1. Planet of Slums
    2. Late Victorian Holocausts
  11. TEACHING STUDENT ABOUT CONJUNCTURE IN HISTORICAL EVENTS


TUESDAY, JULY 19, 2011: ETERNAL FLAMES: MULTILINGUAL RESEARCH FOR THE CLASSROOM AND PUBLIC
ALLEN CHRISTY: PROFESSOR OF EAST ASIAN HISTORY
Center for the Study of Pacific War Memories

  • QUESTION: How has the war been remembered in the last 60 years?
    • Memory is not necessarily the study of the event...but the study of how the event is made sense of after the event.
    • Meaning can change
    • Comparative memory studies
    • BACKGROUND: Okinawa was an independent kingdom with a tribute relationship with China until the late 1800s; annexed by Japan in 1879; most Okinawans think of themselves as Japanese
    • Postwar reality of Japan is one in the context of an alliance with the US (politically, ideologically, and economically)
    • FOUR PROJECTS:Eternal Flames:Living Memories of the Pacific War
      • Akira Nagamine- Japanese Soldier in China- sent to Manchuria; wounded in battle with the Russians; spent 8 years living in Manchuria w/former Japanese secret agent and anti-Communist Russians; moved to Japan and then to Watsonville, Ca--> making a film; ebook; website
        • started class with video footage and asked them to reconstruct why Mr. Nagamine was in Manchuria at this time in order to get at the Japanese Colonial Empire (video trailer)
      • Charles Gail Project: American soldier stationed in Okinawa; also a photographer; wants to take them to Okinawa (have long life expectancy); Mr. Gail passed away already, so they can't interview him. Wanting to create an oral history from other soldiers who were there.
      • The Cornerstone of Peace: Memorial complex monument in Okinawa; area that is similar to Arlington National Cemetery; modeled on the Vietnam War Memorial- has the name of every person who died regardless of nationality; Trying to make a virtual visualization of this part down to the finest level (names on the wall)
      • Eternal Flames: A Multilingual Website: core project; online archive and research space; people are able to submit information that they have; collecting and investigating; recording oral histories; Collaborating with Japanese universities
        • How can you learn the languages necessary to do "World History"; imagine the range/depth and intensity of what is available and accessible because you don't have access to the language
      • Grandaughter of doctor on Doolittle Raid; Reprisal after Pearl Harbor; said there was an unpublished memoir

PEDRO MACHADO, Asst Prof at Indiana University, Bloomington
  • COTTON
    • most imp textile fiber in WH; comfortably worn in most climates; takes & holds dyes well; low price
    • 1913- 80% of global fiber consumption (4 billion kgs)
    • 1990- 48% of global fiber use--> WHY? lost out to synthetic fibers (today--> 35%)
  • When we think cotton--> we think industrialization--> European dominance. This is an obscure view considering the many other markets that were important
  • Machado's interest: logics of consumption in the non-west
  • SOUTH ASIAN TEXTILE PRODUCTIO
India.jpg
  • GUJARAT
    • Thriving commercial center; main source of cotton cloth in "worlds" of Indian Ocean
    • printed cloths (by 13th/14th century has highly developed printing/stamping culture)
    • Embroidered textiles
  • COROMANDAL(eastern coast of southern India)
    • known for painted cloths
    • 17th c description- famous for exquisite painted cloth
    • Muslins
    • 18th c. indigo-dyed cloths imp (used to buy slaves on east African coast)
  • BENGAL
    • Not a major center for cloth printing/painting
    • known for finely woven goods
    • Muslins/delicate cloths
    • Silk & cotton mixtures
    • Embroidery widespread
  • COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS
    • development of numerous market places; exports require developed internal markets
    • major marts for cotton, yarn & cloth
    • Highly productive agricultural systems--> agricultural surpluses (grain)--> multiple growing seasons
    • Sophisticated cultures
    • Credit becomes hugely important/very developed by 14th/15th c.
      • merchants never had direct access to the worker; negotiated through a head weaver;
      • merchants worked in family firms; negotiated with other families as well; wealthy merchants did not travel--> sent relatives or other trusted associates
  • TECHNOLOGY
    • Long experience/experimentation with tools & methods
    • Tech improvements & diffusion
    • Charkha (spinning wheel) 13th/14th c.
    • Modified & adapted
    • Looms
    • Commercial production: horizontal frame loom; pitlooms-- dug hole in ground--for humidity to keep fibers supple
    • Weaving mainly done by men
external image spinningwheel_charkha.gifexternal image pit%20loom.gifexternal image PIT%20LOOM.jpg

  • FINISHING
    • Dyers, painters, printers--> huge knowledge and accumulation of materials & techniques (not shared & disseminated)
    • Vast # of coloring agents available
    • Knowledge of manipulating & fixing agents on cotton with mordants
    • Variety of binding agents; vegetable & mineral agents; superior dying techniques
  • PROFESSIONALIZATION IN PRODUCTION
    • Weavers-mostly men
    • Weaving castes/jatis
    • Mobile
    • Specialization in production-- producing for particular markets
  • LOGIC OF CONSUMPTION
    • Helped underpin South Asian capacities
    • Role of tastes & preferences dictated by notions of fashion
    • Asian commodities' role in fashion systems
    • Indian cloths: agent of cosumer tastes
    • Consumption as communication and performance:
    • Fashion not preserve of "west"
  • CONSUMER MARKETS
    • Gujarati cotton cloths
    • 4th c BCE: Sokotra Island
      • found in burials as grade goods
    • Periplus: trade between Gujarat & Gulf of Aden, Res Sea, Coast of Africa
  • FUSTAT CLOTHS
    • Clothed poor and wealthier tradesmen/merchants
      • wraps, beddings, curtains, decorative, flowered, plainly dyed, patterned stripes or borders
    • Hamsa design: sacred goose; reflects union/balance in life
  • SOUTHEAST ASIA
    • Indonesian archipelago
    • Consumer appetitie for block-printed cottons
    • Patterns: have a social & ritual significance (often textiles are not worn--for ritual, display, accumulation, used as currency-East Africa)
    • Essential cultural medium of gift exchange
    • Indian cottons imbued w/diff meanings by diff societies
    • Self definition
    • 3 primary functons
      • Clothing (daily & ceremonial)
      • items of decoration (festive & ritual)
        • Sulawesi dodot-type cloth to ward off evil
      • Stored wealth (items of inheritance)
external image map-scan.jpg
  • EAST AFRICA: to what extent do Indian textiles displace African textiles; alter African production?
    • Kangas
      • women are the important consumers of this fabric
      • often the prints convey messages; place for African proverbs
      • Kanga History

  • COTTON & EMPIRE- 19th century
    • American cotton production/textile manufacture starts to displace India
    • Stronger staple of cotton produced in America (able to produce textiles on machines)

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. The Girl with the White Flag
  2. T-Shirt Travels Documentary
  3. Salaula: the world of secondhand clothing and Zambia By Karen Tranberg Hansen
  4. White Mughals:love and betrayal in eighteenth-century India By William Dalrymple
  5. In an Antique Land by Amitav Ghosh
  6. Amitav Ghosh website
  7. Genizah Documents
    1. University of Cambridge Source
    2. Princeton Geniza Project
  8. Grammar of Ornament by Owen Jones
  9. Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology
  10. Melville Herkovits and the Library of African Studies
  11. Pastimes and Politics: Culture, Community, and Identity in Post-Abolition Urban Zanzibar, 1890-1945 by Laura Fair

WEDNESDAY, JULY 20, 2011

PEDRO MACHADO: "MODERN GIRL" CONSUMPTION & GLOBALIZATION
  • What is modernity? Are there multiple modernities?

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. Domesticating the World: African Consumerism and the Genealogies of Globalization by Jeremy Prestholdt
  2. CREATE ARTIFACT KITS FOR THE COMMODITIES OR REGIONAL AREAS
  3. Drawing the global colour line: white men's countries and the international Challenge of Racial Equality By Marilyn Lake, Henry Reynolds
  4. The Modern Girl Around the World: Consumption, Modernity, and Globalization by Alys Eve Weinbaum, Modern Girl Around the World Research Group
  5. Center for Research Libraries-Modern Girl
  6. National Cotton Council of America
  7. The Birth of the Modern World by Chris Bayly
  8. Lifebuoy men, lux women: Commodification, Consumption, and Cleanliness in Modern Zimbabwe By Timothy Burke

THURSDAY,JULY 21, 2011

SHARE SESSION
  • Jaisha: Hair as a commodity; read a series of quotes from research; evidence of hair on trade ships during early modern period; looking at the production and consumption of hair; were there any illicit aspects of this industry
  • Traci & Stephanie: Silver Commodities Project and Student Instructions- see Handouts emailed and await wikilink
  • Laura(I didn't get all of them!)
    1. Medieval: Wode and Wool
    2. Renaissance:
    3. Reformation: Cheese and the Worm book (paper- from Traci)
    4. Exploration: Columbian Exchange
    5. Wars of Religion: Silver
    6. Industrial Rev: Cotton
    7. Imperialism: Rubber
    8. WWI: Fashion/indigo/uniforms (from Kate)
    9. WWII: Military tech-Traci/dynamite-Nobel- Terry; Tobacco- Kelly; Coffee- Beth
    10. Soviet Union
    11. The Magic Lantern
    12. Other requirements Interview an expert- Tara has email form/phone conversation form; check recording devicesWHit; share projects at the end
  • Whitney:Close-up Unit for WHFUA- Opium in China--> lesson ideas
  • Linda: Silk Road and religion as a commodity; series of books for children like bio of cotton; Story of Stuff- ethical issues in history--coffee table discussion; questions--> what are the pros/cons if we stop consuming certain goods?; Looking to create a model for a simplified project
  • Erin:Chocolate; still in the works; how does chocolate become commericalized- Cadbury, Roundtree--> Quakers (plantation owners); Hershey- secretive about origins of beans; Mars- very secretive; Cadbury- documented PR problems w/slave labor
  • Therisa: have students interview their families
  • Tara:Cotton; evolved to Calico craze in England; cotton cloth as a democratizing force--not as fruitful; importation of cotton from India leads to backlash from wool, weavers--> attempts to get gov't to protect their industries. What is the impact of protectionism on England and India (correlate with car industry/too big to fail); women wearing calico attacked from all walks of life; what does this say about gender?; who is pushing these attacks? Men were wearing calico at this time, but they weren't being attacked--> mostly in clothing that you would wear at home;
    • Discussion: Terry--> this level of violence was horrific--similar to the young Turks; outlawing the fez

OPIUM AND WORLD HISTORY- Terry Burke
  • Asian trade and the problems of empire
    • basic contradiction in pre-19th c. world economy--> Europeans must pay for Asian goods in silver, not having anything of their own to sell--> created a trade deficit
  • Why opium? Why China?
    • Tea story and the opium story are intertwined
    • Chinas has a monopoly of tea until 19thc
    • EIC begins trading in China tea, paying with American silver; at first British prefer coffee
    • Transition to tea creates a major balance of pmt issues
    • Why do British consumers switch from coffee to tea? What are the caloric consequences on the consumers?
    • Assam Tea
  • Opium production and the link to India
    • well known across Eurasia to the ancient period (usually mixed in drinks)
    • Tobacco smoking is the gateway approach to smoking opium (sailors-- learned from Native populations in the Americas who used it in ritual)
    • India produces opium already in the 17th c.
      • 1773 EIC declares monopoly on opium prod in Bengal
      • 1797: Official state agency licenses poppy cultivation (
  • Malwa System: EIC organizes private traders in western India to the same product standards as Bengal system
  • Imposed transit tax per chest on Malwa opium
external image poppies_sz-zssjfi6mua2i4nu.jpg
external image 13baa8fab8d1826597bddc370bb0_grande.jpg
external image 220px-Opium_ship_of_English.jpg

  • China and the Opium Wars
    • China before the Opium Wars: problems of reform; Complexities of Qing empire (political/economic/social)
    • Silk and Porcelain are being produced in Europe; silver mines on the decline--> Tea is the only product that China corners the market on
    • Opium:
  • British Opium Trade
    • Jardine and Matheson--> based in Canton and Hong Kong
    • 1840--William Jardine is sent to London to get Parliament to support war with China
  • Lin Zexu appt imperial commissioner in Canton; tried to ban opium trade/smoking; break in trade relations with British
  • American names in opium trade: Robert Forbes
  • Second Opium War- 1858-1860
    • Treaty of Nanjing
    • Legalizes opium
  • The Opium System
    • why does opium consumption spread?
    • role of connoisseurship?
    • problems of suppression
  • Opium: Leisure and Pleasure in the City
    • Opium and danger
    • Opium and class anxiety
    • Opium and leisure practices in Shanghai

IDEAS & RESOURCES
    1. Article from USA Today shared by Ann: Feathers in the hair lure those with fashion flair
    2. The tools of empire: technology and European imperialism in the nineteenth century by Daniel Headrick
    3. The History of Smoking by Sander L. Gilman, Xun Zhou
    4. Tastes of paradise:a social history of spices, stimulants, and intoxicants by Wolfgang Schievelbusch
    5. Website: China During the Opium Wars
    6. Bob Tadashi //Wakabayashi- Opium War writing//
    7. Opium Museum