NEH Seminar: Production and Consumption in World History

MONDAY, JUNE 27, 2011
Library: 3rd floor is history
MEETINGS: Working Dinner: Wednesday
Meeting: Wednesday @9:30am
Courtney in Room 515

Meet Mon-Thurs 1pm-4pm
Tuesdays @11:30 for informal lunches (in room 210)
Monday- 4th of July meet with Dickens Group- Cowell College Provost’s House,which is located overlooking Monterey Bay and the Field House 5-7:30pm
Dickens Film Festival on Sundays
Good connections (set during Industrial Rev in England; money)
Humanities 1 Room 302- available for study 8am-5pm
Closing Reception: July 21st TBA


Production & Consumption- inception 1450-1750 and 1750-present; put together the world minus Europe; how to get "people" in history; and gender
Philip Curtin

Who produces it?
Who consumes it?
How is is diffused?
How does it interact with other cultures?
How is it syncretized by other cultures in order to be received? (ex. tea from China...to England (adding sugar/milk)
Look at historical patterns in history that link world history in a real way?

TO DO:
View Commodities Bios and Social Bio in World HIstory

MEMBERS
Laura Thompson: So Cal- teaches AP Euro and AP Art HIstory
Linda Wolhmann-Cargill: So Cal- teaches 6th grade Ancient World History
Kelly Sharbel- Virginia- teaches AP Euro
Lesley Muller- Palo Alto, Cal- teach Honors World, AP Euro, Case Studies in Africa, Eco
Elizabeth Brownson- No Cal- AP World, WH, AP Govt/ UC Santa Barbara- this year
Whitney Davidson-Hinz- NY- WH/AP World
Therisa Rogers- Michigan- Eco, WH, World Culture, World Religion- moving to Abu Dhabi- teaching English
Traci Gizzi Romo- Detroit- World History; background in Sociology
Keishla- Texas- AP World History, AP Euro
Tara Rana- NY- Global History, Modern India and Modern China Elective
Erin Bronstein- Penn- US History, WH-part 2-
Ann Matney- Ohio- HS Librarian (100% African American HS, 60% dropout rate; 50% SPED; Prop 5- Toledo Public Schools
Stephanie Portman- Cali- Menlo School- Modern WH; Race/Gender, Global Issues
Jaisha Bruce- Georgia- Eco, AP Macro Eco
Vincent Stewart- Maryland- US History, WH, African Am History, African Studies
Terry Burke- 43 years at UCSC- Retired, MIddle East, World, and Mediterranean History (teach on recall 2 classes); PhD from Princeton; dissertation- Moroccan Resistance to the French; 3rd World Syllabus; Making of the Modern World; Importance of the Mediterranean

TO DO?
What LENS do you use to view history?
WHFUA- Big Eras
PANORAMIC
LANDSCAPE
CLOSE-UP
Important world events in 19th century- ABOLITION OF SLAVERY (is it just of the African variety? Did the traditional methods of

IDEAS:
Journey of a product that you own (trace it)- Tara
Commodities project (Whitney)
Food Inc
Syllabus for 3rd World Course
F. Braudel- world historian
The New World History- Ross E. Dunn
*Compare JAPANESE COLONIALISM to EUROPEAN COLONIALISM--Interesting idea--> Did the Japanese idea of Pan-Asianism produce different results than the racist/Social Darwinist approach of Europeans. Japanese were very controlling in Korea but did they do that same thing in other parts of Asia/SE Asia

TUESDAY, JUNE 28TH: TUESDAY LUNCH

TEA IN WORLD HISTORY BY FANG YU HU- COMMODITY BIOGRAPHY (Dissertation- HIstory of Girls Education in Taiwan in the 19th/20th century; impact of Japanese colonial educational system)

Chinese method of processing tea
How does Tea get to Europe- Portuguese- gets to England due to the marriage of Charles II to Portuguese princess who makes tea drinking popular (added sugar and later milk--> why? Chinese drank it black)

Chinese cups have no handles--> water does not have to be boiling hot so you can hold the cup
Europeans have to dissolve sugar, so the water had to be hot...cups need handles.
external image tea-cups2.JPG

British desire for tea very high---trade imbalance created (leads to Opium wars)
later export tea production to other parts of South/SE Asia

New companies as a result of tea industry (Lipton, Typhoo, Tetle, Kusmi Tea, Lyons, Bewley)--> Check Standage...reference to Wedgewood.

QUESTIONS?
WHAT DOES TEA TELL ABOUT SOCIETY?
WHEN DOES AMERICA TRANSITION TO ICED TEA? WHY?
HOW DID AMERICAN CONSUMPTION OF ICED TEA EFFECT THE INDUSTRY?
MODERN TEA? CANNED AND BOTTLED TEA?
HOW DID THE INTRODUCTION OF LARGE SCALE TEA PLANTATIONS ON LOCAL ECONOMIES AND CULTURES?
WHEN DID TEA BECOME A DRINK OF THE MASSES? UK Tea Council

BANANAS- Troy Crowder** (dissertation: Consequences for global food production/spread of pandemic food diseases as a result of high intensity plantation crops (bananas, cocoa, rubber, coffee, coconuts)
  • One of the world's oldest cultivated fruits--> 5000 BCE; early ones had seeds; very hard-- not originally used as food b/c of seeds--> mutant banana found w/o seeds...cloned it (STANDAGE-EDlBLE HISTORY---like Corn)
  • Bananas start in Papua New Guinea and diffuses out
  • BANANA DIFFUSION- 3 PHASES
    • PAPUA NEW GUINEA INTO SE ASIA & POLYNESIANS INTO POSSIBLE PARTS OF S. AMERICA
    • MUSLIM EMPIRES LINKING AFRICA/EUROPE/ASIA-ACCESS TO BANANAS VIA INDIA
    • EUROPEAN COLONIZATION- SPANISH BRING TO THE AMERICAS AND CARIBBEAN
    • BANANA IS A GLOBAL (TROPICAL) FRUIT BY EARLY MODERN PERIOD
  • 1850- Rise of the export banana- Chiquita banana; United Fruit Company--> becomes a staple fruit around the world
  • Dessert Bananas: Production & Consumption
    • Old colonial links produce bananas
    • Control of labor and supply of bananas
    • Consumption: fresh and cheap; available year round due to tropical climates; technology (transport, ethalene bags, refrigeration); marketing; mass production
  • ECOLOGICAL CRISIS:
  • POST MODERN CONSEQUENCES
    • Because bananas are a major subsistence food...the destruction of the banana has major food security consequences
    • Potential for mass migrations; movement of labor

Banana Podcast: Bananas, A Storied Fruit With An Uncertain Future
SOURCE: Banana: The Fate of the Fruit That Changed the World by Dan Koeppel

TUESDAY, JUNE 28TH- CLASS TIME
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD: 1400-1800
LECTURE 1: PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION IN WORLD HISTORY

1. WORLD HISTORY: Conceptualization

2. BIG HISTORY: The Times of WH-- where would you start? BIG BANG THEORY
Concept of time
  • diff time scales for diff purposes
  • timelines
  • clock time vs. deep time
  • concept of world time (simultaneity)
  • time may be relative to events (political time may differ from economic time etc.)

3. BIG GEOGRAPHY: Mapping WH
  • islands and seas (the dispersal of human pop)
  • Afroeurasia- the inter-communicating zone
  • Limits to the inter-communicating zone (config of southern seas; wind systems of world oceans)
  • Jared Diamond- Chapter on development of writing systems
  • Using Google images to get aerial views of cities
QUESTION: Review Standage. If humans select features of a plant to "champion" is that co-evolution?

LENSES of WHFUA- panoramic, landscape, close-up and H-H, H-E and H-I

NEW CONSENSUS:
  1. Afroeurasian trade is quite ancient
  2. As Asian societies increase in size and complexity, the volume of trade increased dramatically
  3. Trade incorporates greater #s of people, transitioning from trade in elite luxury items to bulk trade in common consumer products
CYCLES OF WORLD TRADE
  1. Slow recovery of Asian economies after Mongols/Black Death
  2. By 1500, levels of trade exceed previous levels
  3. After 1550, silver from Americas jump-starts fully global economy


Egyptian use of silk---checked shroud---made of Chinese silk
Engraving of 2 monks presenting Justinian with silkworms
http://www.silkmuseum.gr/silk_eng.html



SOURCES:
Maps of Time: David Christian
This Fleeting World- David Christian
The Human Web- J. McNeil
1491 by Charles C. Mann
The New World History by Ross E. Dunn
Charles Needham- Chinese historian- Science and Civilization of China
Powers of Ten
Powers of Ten
Power of 10 Simpsons
The History Wars
Bob Bain
Navigating World HIstory by Patrick Manning
Sam Weinberg

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 29th, 2011
The Dynamism of the Indian Ocean World

INDIAN OCEAN WORLD
  • Bigger better Med Sea trading route--> stretches from East Africa to in some cases as far as the S.China Sea/Japanese traders
  • Monsoon winds dictate travel patterns
external image 24897.jpg
IndianOceanMaritimeRoutes.gif

Mediterranean starts out very diverse but over time becomes more monolithic in culture, religion & language.
Indian Ocean World more diverse. No common legal system; currencies etc. Buddhism takes route in urban areas over rural; Hindu remains dominant in court;
Hadramawt: South Arabian Peninsula
Sailing T
ech improving during this era and in this region; Zheng He
external image zhenghe-pic.gifexternal image 4413971.jpgexternal image 86115.jpg

prau; dhows; Chinese junks
Trading with East Africa-Swahili Coast
New maritime technology: portolans, sternpost rudder, magnetic compass, astrolabe,
Slide1.jpg



Island of Makassar--macassar oil used for hair conditioner--> Dutch take over this island

Indian Ocean trade today
:external image map_indian_ocean.jpg
1492: Columbus has small boats--> why? Same time as the expulsion of the Jews
Why does Islam cease to advance to western African coasts: tsetse fly--> horses can't handle it.

Iskandar Muda- defends against the Portuguese
Coxingha??

RICE & SILK: The Pre-1500 Chinese Economy: Silk in the World Market

  • Chinese silks are prized b/c they are not tussah silk
  • China & South Asian Dominance
  • Central Role of Rice Trade
    • high in calories
    • easily hybridized
  • Characteristics of Rice as a source of Carbs
  • China and the Grand Canal
external image draft_lens2282197module12527351photo_1226252188Modern_Course_of_Grand_Canal_of_China.png

Mulberry & Fishpond system:
Time 1: Regional Market- ecologically balanced: fish pond, rice, mulberry trees
Time 2: Market Transition: mulberry monocrop, import rice, fish not produced
Story of silk pre-dates Europeans and Vasco de Gama
  • Chronic Rice Deficit Fuels Asian Rice Trade

external image Chinese_ladies_making_silk.jpg

external image 3001981
Sumptuary laws
BALANCE SHEET ON ASIAN TRADE c. 1500
  • By 1500, pockets of "near capitalism"in Afroeurasia

COMMODITIES IN WH KEY CONCEPTS:
  • Characteristics of permodern exports: low bulk/high value
  • 2 Main types
    • Primary comm: precious & other minerals, food & fiber crops, drugs, animals, wood
    • Manufactured (generally labor intensive): textiles (silk, cottons, woolens), porcelain, weapons, glass, books, dyestuffs
OBSTACLES TO COMMODITY DIFFUSION
  • Cost factors (production, shipping, marketing)
  • Difficulties in shipping (bulk, shelf life)
  • Transport (reliability, cost, speed)
  • Cultural embededness--> how
  • Absence of cultural receptivity of receiving cultures (will they buy it?)
  • Weather
  • Piracy

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. World History Association
  2. World History Connected
  3. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350 by Janet Abu- Lughod//
  4. Tigers, Silk, and Silt by Robert Marks
  5. Kenneth Pomerantz the Great Divergence
  6. The Pattern of the Chinese Past by Mark Elvin
  7. The Home and the World Rabindranath Tagor
  8. Commodity Fetishism
  9. Confusions of Pleasure by Timothy Brook

THURSDAY, JUNE 30, 2011

Kate Long:
What are my goals for this seminar?
My initial goal is to broaden my understanding and knowledge of the role of production & consumption in world history. Secondly, I want to develop new applications and connections for my classroom. Commodities are accessible to students. Understanding desire and want are accessible feelings for students. I think this approach of understanding how the forces of desire and want for certain commodities can reveal important patterns of historical forces.

LESSONS THAT WORKED:

Burke:
PORCELAIN: A World Product
  • Pottery vs. Stoneware & porcelain
  • Chinese ceramics to late Yuan--> chiefly monochromatic-- green, white, blue ware
  • Major shit to polychromatic--> WHEN???
  • Jingdezhen was a world pottery center---> WHY???: industrial production- org of time, work, discipline; production in separable task specific stages
  • Role of Imperial Botanical Gardens
  • Units of measurement--> thaler--> dollar

SPICES AND THE HISTORY OF EUROPEAN TASTE-- Freedman?
  • Euros favored a highly spiced diet
  • spices linked to medieval medical theory--> the four humors
  • Spices also favored for their aromas
    • average pepper budget in gentry household---> 2.5 lbs a year
  • Pepper= S/SE Asia; Cinnamon- Sri Lanka; Nutmeg, Mace, Cloves- Molukus
  • Originally collected from wild products---> later have plantations with the Dutch

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. Richard Hakluyt Voyages and Discoveries by R. Hakluyt
  2. Technology in World Civilization by Arnold Pacey
  3. Old World Encounters by Jerry Bentley
  4. Medieval Boundariesby Sharon Kinoshita
  5. Trade and Civilization in the Indian Oceanby K. N. Chaudhuri
  6. Slave Ship: A Human History by M. Rediker
  7. Servants of the Dynasty- Palace Women in World History ed by Anne Walthall
  8. Tools of Empire by Daniel Headrick
  9. Machines as the measure of men: science, technology, and ideologies of Western Dominance By Michael Adas

TUESDAY, JULY 5, 2011: GLOBALIZING US HISTORY- LUNCH SESSION
Urmi Engineer and Chrislaine Pamphile Miller

  • Goal: providing a global context to U.S. History--> current plan: narrative or expansion, progress from colonial to present; wanted to integrate the West, Alaska, Hawaii, add native, Spanish, and African Americans, women
  • First half of syllabus attempts to give an Atlantic World context
  • Big change--- to 1850; Civil War is not the climax; allows for new contexts at beginning of U.S. History and not be overwhelmed with Civil War; 1850 is a global date (women's rights, independence movements in Latin America)
  • Second half-1850-present--> How is the US interacting with the rest of the world; transition from a debtor to a creditor nation; depression as a global phenomena

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. A Nation Among Nations: Americas Place in World History by Thomas Bender
  2. Rethinking American History in a Global Age- ed by Thomas Bender
  3. Teaching American History in a Global Context by Carl Guarneri and James Davis, eds.
  4. The Jamestown Project by Karen Kupperman

TUESDAY, JULY 5, 2011: BURKE CLASS
PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION IN WORLD HISTORY: THE SPICE TRADE AND THE PORTUGUESE EMPIRE
The Asian Spice Trade
  • Historical Field Methods
    • Why start with Asia- most population; production of goods that are valued; Silk Road; developed trade markets
  • Portugal as an unlikely empire
    • Society of mariners & peasants
    • Portuguese (re)conquista 1249- expulsion of Muslims
      • spend some time crusading in Morrocco
    • The House of Aviz- 1385-1580- Portuguese
      • Family of Prince Henry
      • Est. El Mina on African coast; gold mines
      • Issues of rounding the bump of Africa...able to sail down, but difficult to get back; winds don't work that way
      • Portuguese attempt to grow sugar in the Canary Islands; ecological disaster; not much sugar' Canarian ppl destroyed' implementation of African slaves
    • Portuguese state & society
  • Vasco de Gama Era
    • follows up on Dias discovery
    • Enters Calicut 1498
    • Portuguese export Venetian armed trading system to Indian Ocean-- Prince Henry sends emissaries/spies to Red Sea region posing as Venetians to gather information on the trade region
    • Genoese become backers of the Spanish and Portuguese in these efforts because they have been squeezed out by the Venetians
external image history-of-portugal0.gif
external image 400px-Spain_and_Portugal.png

Papal Bull dividing world between Spain & Portugal
  • Portuguese Indian Ocean System
    • Control major strategic waterways- Straits of Malacca, Aden
    • Armed trade-Portuguese style
      • naval artillery
      • factory fort
      • cartaz+ armada+cafila system
      • Ships may be smaller, but they had seaborne artillery
    • Portuguese strategic aims
    • Components of the Portuguese system
      • cartaz- hall pass/passport
      • armadas- roam sea lanes
      • cafila- convoy (Arabic--> camel caravan)
      • annual voyages of treasure ships (pepper, other spices, silks)
      • Factory fort cities:
      • cultural adaptations of Muslim caravansery; khan;
    • Portuguese Administration
      • Casa da India: royal trading firm; controlled pepper trade
      • Estado da India: political admin
      • Goa: Capital of Indian Ocean Trading Empire
      • Viceroy- resident in Ga (1515); responsible to king only
      • Council of State- based in Goa
  • Portuguese Empire in World Historical Context
external image magellan1.jpg
Animaniacs Magellan-


IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. http://www.deen-intensive.com/the-rihla-program.html
  2. Ibn Majid
  3. Saudi Aramco World
  4. Pedro de Covilha- Portuguese Explorer
  5. In an Antique Land- Amitav Ghosh
  6. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as ...By S. D. Goitein
  7. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire by Charles R. Boxer and Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion
  8. The Venture of Islam by Hodgesonand Rethinking world history: essays on Europe, Islam, and world history
  9. The New Cambridge History of India-Portuguese India by M.N. Pearson
  10. Colonizer's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History by J.M. Blaut
  11. L.S. Stavrianos
  12. The Myth of the Continents by Martin Lewis and Karen E. Wigen

WEDNESDAY, JULY 6, 2011
SILVER
  • ASIAN TRADE & EUROPEAN CHALLENGE
    • growing pie to share in trade
    • bulk trade exists-rice and grains, silk, cotton, timber
    • Portuguese dominate first, then Spanish, Dutch, French & British
    • trading diasporas: Wolof, Fulani, Armenian,
    • Big overseas trading communities of Chinese (Manila, Batavia, Malaka)
    • Japanese nyai- consort of a Dutchmen;
    • languages evolve from blending of cultures (lingua francaand pidgin or patois)
    • Estado India--official arm of Portuguese...but didn't really profit.
  • PORTUGUESE EMPIRE AS A BUSINESS
    • Periodization
    • Malapted administrative structures (economic, state, and church bureaucracy did not translate effectively)
    • Inefficient organization- high fixed costs
    • Key strategic failure: Don't take Aden
    • Don't have goods of interest to Asians
    • Not capitalist (medieval)--> no Portuguese bourgeoisie develops--> increased revenue does not translate into wealth for the Portuguese
  • MANILA: ECONOMIC HINGE OF THE WORLD
    • Birth of Pacific rim
      • Diffusion of Austronesian languages from Taiwan (3000-1000 BCE)
      • Formation of Polynesian culture--> diffused across Pacific as far as Hawaii (500 CE); even to Madagascar
      • Evidence of Polynesian contact along west coast of the Americas (Peru)
      • New Zealand (Maori)
      • Some signs of Chinese and Japanese contact
external image 05609653311642276.jpg
    • Philippine History and Society-1521
    • Luzon Society
      • Clans/baranguay headmen/datu
      • Social hierarchies; nobles, freemen, dependents, and slaves
      • Practice swidden agriculture
    • Spanish Rule
      • Sangle- unconverted Chinese
      • Natives called Indios
      • Spanish galleon are often constructed in Manila
      • Use Chinese converts to negotiate with Indios
      • Spanish population 1000-1500
      • Under viceroy of New Spain (Mexico)
      • Same admin sys --> encomienda, church hierarchy
      • Two interests: nutmeg, cloves
    • Manila (1571)
  • THE CHINA CONNECTIONS
    • Pre-existing resident Chinese community
    • After Manila is established (1571), completely different economic mission
    • Enormously lucrative trade in Chinese silks, porcelains for America silver
    • 2,000,000 pesos per year
  • SILVER IN THE ASIAN (& WORLD) ECONOMY
    • China is the world's largest economy
    • Silver as a commodity...not just currency
    • Main global sources of silver: Japan and the Americas (Potosi and Mexico)
    • Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade (1565-1815); 6 month voyages
    • Spanish-Chinese relationships-->

external image manila-acapulco-galleon-trade-routes-ship-voyage-galeon-andalucia-unesco-trip-festival-connecting-continents-history-europe-mexico-americas-christopher-columbus-map-cebu-pacific-ocean.png

external image 9602582345320104.png

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. New World for Old- Exploration, Science, and Superstition (from Montaigne, of Cannibals and from the Journal of Gaspar Correa)
  2. The Modern World System Iand Volume II- Immanuel Wallerstein
  3. The Structures of Everyday Life Vol 1- Fernand Braudel
  4. ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age: Andre Gunder Frank
  5. Battle of Algiers movie
  6. Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800 Volume II by Holden Furber
  7. Hoe vs. Plow Cultivation Belt Map from Braudel---find this illustration--> different crops
  8. Find/make a Magellan route map on a Pacific-centered map
  9. Relationship between plow based agriculture and gender stratification
  10. The Political Economy of Merchant Empires: State Power and World Trade 1350-1750 ed. by James D. Tracy

THURSDAY, JULY 7, 2011

Wolof People: Therisa Rogers
WHO: Ethinic-language group-Sene-Gambia region; prominent due to their continuity;
on recieiving end of trade; trace connections to Serer people
Muridya/Tijaniya- Sufi order in region; most Wolofs were originally Animists--> Islam doesn't take route until 19th century--> not in existence during the empire
WHEN: 14th century empire: origins--> wood arbitration...becomes King
WHERE: Sene-Gambia region-inland northern area where capital located with 4 coastal states; traded from Sahara and coast--> Portuguese improve importance of coastal trade (ppl, gold, grains); Wolof empire declines by end of 16th empire--> 1537 one of the states decided to stop sending tribute to the interior--> emperor couldn't fight it and empire breaks apart
WHY: Complex political empires in Africa; type of representative democracy (not women); landlocked region

Commercial Trade Routes of West and North Africa- Vincent Stewart
  • Local trade: forest region; mostly farmers (yams, peanuts, sorghum, millet and fishing & gold)
  • Regional Trade: Wangara- ppl of Ancient Ghana--linked Sudanese region to Trans-Saharan region (copper/salt exchanged for local goods and slaves)
  • Wangaras traded with the Berbers & Fulbe/Fulani--> pastoralists (cattle herders who moved from east to west across Africa)
  • WHY IMPORTANT: Salt-Gold trade network; European arrival on coast diverted trade and led to the decline of interior kingdoms
  • Berbers--> become the Almoravids who move into Spain spreading commodities and ideas
  • kings made money on taxation
  • "Prince Among Slaves" PBS film

Sijilmasa- Islamic city from 12th-16th c.


PEDAGOGY DISCUSSION LED BY KATE:
  • QUESTIONING STRATEGIES
    • Therisa--> WHY DO WE CARE? approach

PERU: The Mines of Potosi
  • The Economy of the Colonial Spanish America
    • Mining industry is the center
    • ranchos---cattle/haciendas/obrajes---weaving industry
  • Peru under the Incas
    • Rise early 13th c; Consolidated from 1438-1533; federal system under Inca lords?
    • Twantinsuyu
    • Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala
      • Chronicle of good government
    • Viceroyalty of Peru
      • Re-purposes existing Incan institutions
      • Hierarchical command system
      • Retians Inca figurehead ruler
      • Mita
        • labor system used to maintain roads, military service; not onerous---> assessed on communities; paralleled exchange of huacas (revered objects)
        • Spanish co-opted the elites and the mita system as forced labor to provide workers for the mines; increasingly onerous
      • Religious pilgramages

  • The Silver Mines of Potosi
    • El Cerro Rico; produces 1.5 m pesos in initial period; 160K ppl; 12K feet altitude;
external image potosi.jpg
external image potosi_mines.jpg
external image Capitulo-CIX.jpg
  • ** Cracking the Ore
      • guayras- natural silver smelters
      • Run by individual families or small groups
      • Massive fuel requirements
      • major environmental consequences
        • large scale deforestation
        • poisoning of soil, headwaters

  • Provisioning Potosi: Everything must be imported: furniture, construction materials, food, fuel,Long llama pack trains ru by corvee labor; entrepreneurs
  • The Mercury of Huancavelica
    • Mercury amalgamation process (1570); mercury becomes a strategic material--previous source--> Almaden, Spain
    • Huancavelica--mercury mines in Peru; exploited by mercury miners' guild; employed 17k mita labors
    • Patio Process?
  • Silver and the World Economy

IDEAS AND RESOURCES
  1. Reversing sail: a history of the African diaspora By Michael Angelo Gomez
  2. On Trans-Saharan trails: Islamic law, trade networks, and cross-cultural exchange in nineteenth-century Western Africa
  3. Plumes: Ostrich Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of Global Commerce Sarah Stein
  4. Prince Among Slavevideo
  5. The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific by Geoffrey Irwin
  6. Prince Among Slaves: The True Story of An African Prince Sold into Slavery in the American South- Terry Alford
  7. A history of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific By Donald Denoon, Philippa Mein Smith, Marivic Wyndham
  8. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas: Sylvaine A. Diouf
  9. Island World: A History of Hawaii in the United States by Gary Y. Okihiro
  10. African Civilizations by Graham Connahisbn: 0-521-31992-7
  11. 1491: New Revelation of the Americas Before Columbus- Charles C. Mann
  12. Open Veins in Latin America

FRIDAY, JULY 8, 2011: PRESENTATIONS

ERIN & TARA: Vermeer's Hat- Chapter 4--> The Geographer
external image geographer.jpg

LAURA & BETH: Vermeer's Hat Chapter 6--> Weighing Silver
  • Use Rembrandt to understand the Dutch
  • Philip II
  • Dutch become the banker's of Europe after French Revolution
  • Hanseatic League
  • Reclaimed Land and Windmills (Rick Steve)
  • The tulip craze (tulips came from Ottomans) (semper augustus most valued)
  • Some Jews enter Holland after Spanish Inquisition (lack of artisans
  • Dutch still life paintings (on the edge?/ everything in is symbolic)
external image tulip-mania.png

external image The-letter-reader-by-Vermeer.jpg

external image Jan_Vermeer_van_Delft_015.jpg

  • vanishing point on the scale
  • invoking the Madonna/last judgement in the background
external image dutchgoldducat1775.jpg
external image 30_birk1.jpg
external image allegory_of_the_vanities.jpg
Sandow Birk---takes paintings and modernizes it
In the arts, vanitas is a type of symbolic work of art especially associated with Northern European still life painting in Flanders and the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries, though also common in other places and periods. The word is Latin, meaning "emptiness" and loosely translated corresponds to the meaninglessness of earthly life and the transient nature of vanity.

Beth: HIstorical Approach

ANN- Mining in Potosi
  • Potosi 1545- silver discovered
  • Huancavelica- mercury discovered
  • Open pit mining first used. Then they went into tunnels (ratholes)
  • Mining wealth brought social and political changes (few families remained wealthy after 2-3 generations)
  • 50K ppl moved in and out of area
  • Percentage went to the crown
  • Most reliable records for production was kept by the Treasury office (royalty receipts)
  • pg 227- high mortality rate/low productivity of Blacks-->altitude issues
  • MODERN DAY MINING in the New York Times

The Fur Trade and Cod- Professor Burke
  • Eco of the Spanish Colonial Empire
  • Search for a Staple
  • external image Old+Cod+Fishing.jpgexternal image 300px-Grand_Banks.png
  • external image 200px-Codstamp.jpgexternal image 0213568985562965.jpg
    • Cod fish stages: (seasonal, constructed of wood, "factories" for cod cleaning and salting)
    • Late Medieval: warm period from 800-1300; Indians of the Northern Forests ?
  • COD: The Fish that Changed the World
external image soldier-laughing-girl.jpg

external image Grlakes_lawrence_map.png
Map of Algonquin Speaking Peoples
external image algic-language-map.jpg
  • Samuel de Champlain- The Franco-Huron Fur Trade begins; means Wild Boar (Pig)
    • Huron are an Algonquin speaking people from the lower part of Ontario
    • Huron people believe that this "trade" is gift-giving
    • French bring diseases and guns
    • Beaver hats become a system of encoding status
  • Trade and Warfare: 2 Perspectives/ Alliance Systems
    • Fur trade leads to the extinction of the Huron
external image Dauphin_Map_of_Canada_-_circa_1543_-_Project_Gutenberg_etext_20110.jpg
  • Source: USCS Commodity Project
  • Why the beaver?
    • all weather hats
    • requires specialized labor (in Russia); Russian women workers exported--> links workers in two continents; a global European market
    • SIDE NOTE: Mercury used to make hats (Mad Hatter---caused neurological problems in hat makers)
  • The North Pacific Sea Otter Fishery
  • Russian Fur Traders
    • bring Orthodox Christianity to Inuit in Alaska
  • Fort Ross
  • British and Americans arrive
external image 300px-Sea-otter-map.jpg

IDEAS & RESOURCES
  1. http://www.essentialvermeer.com/
  2. Web Gallery of Art
  3. The Coffee Trader by David Liss
  4. National Gallerieshttp://mrscj.wikispaces.com/NEH+Seminar
  5. The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age
  6. Worldly goods: a new history of the Renaissance By Lisa Jardine
  7. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region 1650-1815 By Richard White
  8. Colonial Spanish America edited by Leslie Bethell
  9. Cod: The Fish that Changed the World by Kurlansky
  10. Fish on Friday: feasting, fasting, and the discovery of the New World By Brian M. Fagan
  11. Europe and the people without history By Eric R. Wolf